The Complete List


.a Ext archive
A HTML anchor
Aacute HTML A with accent acute (also: Oacute etc.)
Acirc HTML A with accent circonflexe (also: Ocirc etc.)
ACK ASCII acknowledge
adb Cmd Algol or absolute or assembly or advanced debugger (see here)
Aelig HTML AE ligature (also: aelig)
Agrave HTML A with accent grave (also: Ograve etc.)
AIX OS Advanced Interactive Executive
ALT HTML alternative (image for text-only browsers)
ANSI Org American National Standards Institute
ar Cmd archiver
ARP Prot address resolution protocol
ARPA Org Advanced Research Project Agency
as Cmd assembler
ASCII ASCII American standard code for information interchange
atob Cmd ASCII to binary
atof Fct ASCII to float
atoi Fct ASCII to integer
Auml HTML A with umlaut (also: Ouml etc.)
A/UX OS Apple Unix
awk Cmd Aho, Weinberger, Kernighan (names of program authors)
B HTML bold
bash Cmd Bourne again shell
bc Cmd better or basic calculator (in early Unix versions: B compiler)
bg Builtin background
biff Prot not an acronym (name of a dog)
bin Dir binaries
bootp Prot bootstrap protocol
BR HTML break (line)
brk Fct break
BS ASCII backspace
BSD OS Berkeley Software Distribution
bsearch Fct binary search
bsh Cmd Bourne shell (name of program author)
btoa Cmd binary to ASCII
.c Ext C
.cpp Ext C++ ("C plus plus")
.cxx Ext C++ (the plus signs are rotated 45 °; found on file systems that don't allow plus signs in file names)
.C Ext C++ (on systems where CC is the C++ compiler)
C Lang Successor of B (which is the successor of BCPL = Basic Combined Programming Language; see here)
C++ Lang Successor of C (++ is the C increment operator)
c89 Cmd 1989 (ANSI/ISO-)C compiler
cal Cmd calendar
calloc Fct count or cleared allocation (?) (see here)
CAN ASCII cancel
cat Cmd concatenate
cb Cmd C beautifier
cc Cmd C compiler
Ccedil HTML C with cedille (also: ccedil)
cd Builtin change directory
CDE Misc common desktop environment
chargen Prot character generator
chdir Fct change directory
chgrp Cmd change group
chmod Cmd change mode
chown Cmd change owner
chsh Cmd change shell
ci Cmd check in
cmp Cmd compare
co Cmd check out
.com TLD commercial
comm Cmd common
cp Cmd copy
cpio Cmd copy (archive files) in and out (of an archive)
cpp Cmd C pre-processor
CR ASCII carriage return
crc Misc cyclic redundancy check
cron Cmd Chronos (greek god)
csh Cmd C shell (resembles the syntax of the C programming language)
ctime Fct convert time
ctype.h Hdr character types
CVS Misc concurrent versions system
...d Cmd daemon (e. g. inetd = internet daemon)
daemon Misc disk and execution monitor
dbx Cmd extended debugger (?) or DBX (=extended decibel, noise reduction system; see here)
dc Cmd desk calculator
DC1 ASCII device control 1 (also: DC2, DC3, DC4)
DCE Misc distributed computing environment
dd Cmd Optinion 1: Dataset Definition (named after the OS/3x0 JCL DD command who's syntax it also ripped off as a joke; see here)
Opinion 2: Copy and convert (called dd because cc is the C compiler; see here)
Opinions 3-n: data, device, disk, dump in various combinations
DD HTML dictionary definition
DEC Org Digital Equipment Corporation
DEL ASCII delete
dev Dir devices
df Cmd disk free
DHCP Prot dynamic host configuration protocol
diff Cmd difference
diff3 Cmd differences of three files
DIR HTML directory
dirname Cmd directory name
DIV HTML division
DL HTML define list
DLE ASCII data link escape
DNS Misc domain name server
DT HTML dictionary term
du Cmd disk usage
dup Fct duplicate
DVI Fmt device independant
DWARF Fmt debug with arbitrary record format
ed Cmd editor
.edu TLD educational
egrep Cmd extended grep
ELF Fmt extensible linking format
elm Cmd electronic mail
EM ASCII end of medium
EM HTML emphasize
emacs Cmd editing macros
Sometimes: Eight megabytes and constantly swapping
or: Escape Meta Alternate Control Shift
or: Emacs makes any computer slow
ENQ ASCII enquiry
env Builtin environment
EOT ASCII end of transmission
eqn Cmd equation
errno Misc error number
esac Builtin case (reversed)
ESC ASCII escape
etc Dir et cetera
ETB ASCII end of transmission block
Eth HTML ?
ETX ASCII end of text
eval Cmd evaluate
ex Cmd extended editor (?)
exec Builtin execute
execl Fct execute list
execle Fct execl with environment
execlp Fct execl with path search
execv Fct execute (with arguments passed in a) vector
execve Fct execv with environment
execvp Fct execv with path search
expr Cmd expression
fc Cmd fix command
fd Spc floppy disk
fd Dir file descriptors (as in /dev/fd)
fcntl Fct file control
FF ASCII form feed
fg Builtin foreground
fgrep Cmd fixed-string grep
fi Builtin if (reversed)
fmt Cmd format
fprintf Fct file print formatted
FS ASCII file separator
fscanf Fct file scan formatted
fsck Cmd file system check
FSF Org Free Software Foundation
fstab File file system table
ftio Cmd fast tape input/output
ftok Fct file token
ftp Cmd file transfer protocol
fuser Cmd file user
ftw Fct file tree walk
g... Cmd GNU
getty Cmd get tty
GIF Fmt graphic interchange format (sometimes: girls in files)
glob Misc global (as in "globbing")
GNU Misc GNU is not Unix
.gov TLD government
grep Cmd global regular expression print (from the ed subcommand g/RE/p where RE is a regular expression)
GS ASCII group separator
.gz Ext GNU zip
.h Ext header
H1 HTML header 1 (also: H2 ... H6)
HALIGN HTML horizontal alignment
hd Spc hard disk
HP Org Hewlett Packard
HPUX OS Hewlett-Packard Unix
HR HTML horizontal ruler
HREF HTML hypertext reference
HT ASCII horizontal tabulator
HTML Fmt hypertext markup language
http Prot hypertext transfer protocol
.i Ext intermediate (?)
I HTML italic
IBM Org International Business Machines
ICMP Prot Internet control message protocol
id Cmd identity
IEEE Org Institute of Electrical and Electronical Engineers
IFS Env internal field seperators
IMG HTML image
imake Cmd interface to make
IMAP2 Prot interim mail access protocol, version 2
inode Misc index node (if anything at all, see here)
ioctl Fct input/output control
IP Prot Internet protocol
irc Cmd internet relay chat
isatty Fct is a tty
ISO Org not an acronym (from greek "isos"; see here)
Java Lang not an acronym (named after the island where coffee comes from)
JPEG Fmt joint pictures expert group
jsh Cmd job-control shell
KBD HTML keyboard
kmem Spc kernel memory
ksh Cmd Korn shell (from David Korn, program author)
.l Ext lex
LANG Env language
ld Cmd link editor or loader
lex Cmd lexical analyser
LF ASCII line feed
LI HTML list item
lib Dir library
lint Cmd not an acronym (removes lint from programs)
Linux OS from Linus (Torvalds; program author's name) and Unix
lharc Cmd Lempl-Huffman archiver (algorithm authors)
ln Cmd link
LOGNAME Env log-in name
logname Cmd log-in name
lorder Cmd library order
lp Spc line printer
lpc Cmd line printer control
lpd Cmd line printer daemon
lpp Dir licensed program products
lpq Cmd line printer queue
lpr Cmd line print
lprm Cmd line printer remove (from queue)
ls Cmd list
m4 Cmd macro processor version 4 (successor of M3)
malloc Fct memory allocation
man Cmd manual
mem Spc memory
MHS Misc message handling system
.mil TLD military
MIME Misc multi-purpose Internet mail extensions
Minix OS miniature Unix
mkfs Cmd make file system
mknod Cmd make node
motd File message or motto of the day
MPEG Fmt motion picture expert group
MULTICS OS multiplexed information and computing system
mv Cmd move
mvdir Cmd move directory
mwm Cmd Motif window manager
NAK ASCII negative acknowledge
nawk Cmd new awk
nbsp HTML non-breaking space
.net TLD network
NFS Misc network file system
NIC Org Network Information Center
NIS Misc network information system
NL ASCII new line
nl Cmd number lines
nm Cmd names
nn Cmd no news
nntp Prot network news transfer protocol
NOBR HTML no break
nohup Cmd no hang-up
.nom TLD nomenclature
nroff Cmd new roff
NTP Prot network time protocol
.o Ext object code
oclock Cmd O shaped clock (?)
od Cmd octal dump
OL HTML ordered list
.org TLD organization
OSF Org Open Software Foundation
OSI Org Open Systems Interconnection
P HTML paragraph
passwd Cmd password
pax Cmd portable archive exchange
PBM Fmt portable bitmap
pcc Cmd portable C compiler
pclose Fct process close
PDP Misc programmed data processor (as in PDP-7, PDP-11, see here)
Perl Lang practical extraction and report language
pg Cmd pager
pgp Cmd pretty good privacy
pico Cmd pine composer
pine Cmd first pine is nearly elm, later pine is no longer elm and finally program for Internet news and e-mail (see here)
ping Cmd not an acronym (named after the sound that a sonar makes, see here)
PNG Fmt portable network graphics
POP3 Prot post office protocol version 3
popd Builtin pop directory (off stack)
popen Fct process open
Posix Misc portable operating system interface for Unix
povray Cmd persistence of vision raytracer
PPP Prot point-to-point protocol
PPTP Prot point-to-point tunneling protocol
pr Cmd prepare (for printing)
prs Cmd print revision summary
printcap File printer capability
PRE HTML pre-formatted
printf Fct print formatted
proc Dir processes (/proc pseudo directory)
prof Cmd profiler
.ps Ext Postscript
ps Cmd process status
PS1 Env prompt string 1 (same for PS2 etc.)
pty Spc pseudo tty
pushd Builtin push directory
pwd Cmd print work directory
qdaemon Cmd queue daemon
qsort Fct quick sort
r... Spc raw (e. g. rfd0 = raw floppy disk 0)
r... Cmd remote (e. g. rsh = remote shell)
RAID Misc redundant array of inexpensive or independant disks
ranlib Cmd (create) random access library
RARP Prot reverse ARP
rc Misc run commands
rcp Cmd remote copy
rcs Cmd revision control system
realloc Fct re-allocate
.rec TLD recreation
regcmp Fct regular expression compile
regex Fct regular expression execute
RFC Misc request for comments
RFD Misc request for discussion
RFO Misc request for opinions
RIP Prot routing information protocol
rlogin Cmd remote login
rm Cmd remove
rmdel Cmd remove delta
rmail Cmd restricted mail (see here)
rmdir Cmd remove directory
rmt Cmd remote magnetic tape
rmt Spc raw magnetic tape
rsh Cmd remote shell or restricted shell (sometimes Rsh)
roff Cmd run-off (similar program)
RS ASCII record separator
rz Cmd receive Z-modem
.sa Ext stub archive
SAMP HTML sample
sar Cmd system activity report
sbin Dir superuser binaries
sbrk Fct segment break
scanf Fct scan formatted
sccs Misc source code control system
SCO Org Santa Cruz Operation
SCSI Misc small computer systems interface
sdb Cmd symbolic debugger
sed Cmd stream editor
SGML Fmt standard generalized markup language
sh Cmd shell
shar Cmd shell archive
shtml Prot server-parsed HTML
SI ASCII shift in
Sinix OS Siemens Unix
SIGABRT Sig signal: abort
SIGALRM Sig signal: alarm clock
SIGBUS Sig signal: bus error
SIGCHLD Sig signal: (exit of a) child
SIGCONT Sig signal: continue
SIGEMT Sig signal: EMT instruction
SIGFPE Sig signal: floating point exception
SIGHUP Sig signal: hangup
SIGILL Sig signal: illegal instruction
SIGINT Sig signal: interruption
SIGIO Sig signal: input/output (possible or completed)
SIGSEGV Sig signal: segmentation violation
SIGSYS Sig signal: (bad argument to) system call
SIGTERM Sig signal: terminate
SIGTTIN Sig signal: TTY input
SIGTTOU Sig signal: TTY output
SIGTSTP Sig Signal: terminal stop
SIGURG Sig signal: urgent I/O condition
SIGUSR1 Sig signal: user-defined signal 1 (also: SIGUSR2)
SIGWINCH Sig signal: window (size) changed
SLIP Prot serial line Internet protocol
SMTP Prot simple mail transfer protocol
SNMP Prot simple network management protocol
stdarg.h Hdr standard (conforming variable) arguments
stddef.h Hdr standard definitions
stdio.h Hdr standard input/output
stdlib.h Hdr standard library
.so Ext shared object
SO ASCII shift out
SOH ASCII start of header
Spam Misc not an acronym (canned beef stew, originally an allusion to ham; used for mass mailings/postings because of a sketch from Monty Python's Flying Circus, see here)
spool Misc simultaneous peripheral operation on-line
sprintf Fct string print formatted
srand Fct seed random number generator
SRC HTML source
sscanf Fct string scan formatted
strcspn Fct string character span
strcat Fct string concatenate
strchr Fct string (find) character
strcmp Fct string compare
strcpy Fct string copy
strlen Fct string length
strpbrk Fct string pointer break
strrchr Fct string (find from the right) character
strspn Fct string span
strstr Fct string (find) string
strtol Fct string to long
strtok Fct string tokenize
stty Cmd set tty
STX ASCII start of text
su Cmd superuser (see here)
SUB ASCII substitute
SUB HTML subscript
SUP HTML superscript
SYN ASCII synchronous idle
sync Cmd synchronize
SYSV OS System V (= roman 5)
SVR4 OS System V release 4
sz Cmd send Z-modem
szlig HTML sz ligature
TAB ASCII tabulator
tar Cmd tape archive(r)
tbl Cmd table
Tcl Lang tool command language
tclsh Cmd Tcl shell
TCP Prot transmission control protocol
tcsh Cmd Tenex C shell (see here)
TD HTML table data
tee Cmd T pipe fitting (plumbing device)
telnet Cmd terminal over network
termcap Dir terminal capability
terminfo Dir terminal information
tex Cmd tau epsilon chi (greek letters)
tftp Prot trivial file transfer protocol
.tgz Ext tar gz
TH HTML table header
TIFF Fmt tagged image file format
Tk Lang toolkit
tmp Dir temporary
TNS Prot transparent network substrate
tr Cmd translate
TR HTML table row
troff Cmd typesetter roff
tsh Cmd trusted shell
tsort Cmd topological sort
TT HTML teletype
ttt Cmd tic tac toe
tty Spc teletype
TZ Env time zone
u Dir user
U HTML underline
ucb Dir University of California at Berkeley
UDP Prot user datagram protocol
UL HTML unsorted list
ulimit Cmd user's limit
umask Fct user's (file creation) mask (see here)
uname Cmd Unix name (?)
uniq Cmd unique
unistd.h Hdr Unix standard
Unix OS From UNICS, a pun on its predecessor MULTICS (see here)
URL Misc uniform resource locator
US ASCII unit separator
Usenet Misc user's network
USL Org Unix System Laboratories
usr Dir unix shared resources
utmp File temporary file with user information
uucp Cmd Unix-to-Unix communication protocol
,v Ext version
VALIGN HTML vertical alignment
VAR HTML variable
var Dir variable
varargs.h Hdr variable (number of) arguments
vi Cmd visual (from the ex subcommand vi that switches into visual mode)
vim Cmd vi improved (previously: vi imitation)
vprintf Fct varargs print formatted
VT ASCII vertical tabulator
VT Misc video terminal (as in VT-52, VT-100)
W3C Org Word Wide Web Consortium
wall Cmd write all
wc Cmd word count
wish Cmd windowing shell
...wm Cmd window manager
WWW Misc world wide web
X Misc Successor of W (windowing system), usually followed by a version number (e. g. X11)
xargs Cmd extended arguments
XBM Fmt X bitmap
xdm Cmd X display manager
xdpr Cmd X dump print
XENIX OS Xenos Unix
xfd Cmd X font display
xmkmf Cmd X make makefile
XMP HTML example
XML Fmt extensible markup language
XOFF ASCII transmission off
XON ASCII transmission on
XPM Fmt X pixel map
xrdb Cmd X resource database
xwd Cmd X window dump
xwud Cmd X window un-dump
.y Ext yacc
yacc Cmd yet another compiler compiler
yp Misc yellow pages
.Z Ext ? (not Ziv because compress uses Huffmann encoding)
zip Cmd Ziv packer (algorithm author)


© 2006 Wolfram Rösler
Last update: 20 May 2006

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